Along the Mediterranean shores it is hard to find another place with so many biodiversities in such a limited territory: this a small microcosm, a real biological island.
The diversities of landscapes and flora are matched with the diversity of fauna. Within the territory of the Park some 170 different species of birds nest out of a total of 237 nesting species in the whole of Italy. Among the nesting birds of prey we should mention: buzzards, kestrels, sparrowhawks, peregrine falcons. Along the coasts and in the ancient parts of the villages of Gargano the skies are streaked across by swifts, rare reddish swallows, martins, sand martins, pallid swifts and Alpine swifts.
Flora is varied and unique, with over 2.200 botanical species which represent about 35% of all national flora. The oak-woods abound in turkey oaks and holm-oaks, and the mixed woods are rich in manna-trees, ashes, elms, hollies, chestnut trees, maples, oak trees, beech-trees, etc. Some areas are covered with badgers, beech-trees and Aleppo pines of considerable size and age. In all these areas it is possible to observe a phenomenon called plant gigantism, that is the abnormal growth of plant species: some specimen of Aleppo pines, beech-trees, holm-oaks and badgers have monumental sizes, such as the 13-metre-girth carob tree in the park of Pugnochiuso, in the municipality of Vieste.